Mullerian duct anomalies are generally rare clinical conditions that results from disruption during the development of the female internal duct system which include the fallopian tubes, uterus ,cervix and the upper portion of the vagina. In most cases most of the anomalies involve the uterus , cervix and upper vaginal. Uterine malformations result from failure in organogenesis or from fusion or reabsorption of the Mullerian ducts. Failures in organogenesis are related to incomplete development of one or both Mullerian ducts, thereby leading to agenesis, uterine hypoplasia or a unicornuate uterus. The causes of Mullerian anomalies have yet to be fully identified and clarified. The karyotypes are normal in most cases though in few patients abnormal karyptype has been described. Fusion defects result from incomplete merging of the caudal portion with the Mullerian ducts (lateral fusion) or incomplete merging of the structures of the urogenital sinus with the Mullerian tubercle (vertical fusion). Failures in lateral fusion may result in uterus didelphys, bicornuate uterus or arcuate uterus. When the defect occurs in vertical fusion, anomalies such as imperforate hymen.
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