Neonatal outcomes can be directly and indirectly affected by caesarean delivery (CD). Data on CD rates in semi-urban and rural hospitals in resource-limited settings are scarce and yet are needed to better guide the care of women and neonates in these settings. We carried out a hospital-based retrospective and prospective cross-sectional study using descriptive and analytic methods conducted within a nine months period in 2014 in two resources-limited hospitals, Cameroon. 199 neonates born through CD were recruited for the study. The prevalence of CD was 13.3% with cephalopelvic disproportion being the most frequent (32.2%) indication for CD. There were 52 (26.1%) ANO following CD and respiratory distress was the most common 24 (46.2%) of all ANO. Emergency indications for CD were associated with more ANO 49 (34.5%) as compared to elective indications for CD 3 (5.3%). The prevalence of ANO associated with CD in our hospitals was high with a worrying prognosis. While the exact reasons are unknown, the creation of well-equipped neonatal units with trained staff, may contribute to reduce neonatal morbidity and fatalities.
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